dinsdag 7 oktober 2014

NeoBabylonian ARWAD

The Neo-Babylonian period of ARWAD.
From the beginning of the 6th century BC most Phoenician towns recognize the rule of Neo-Babylonia. Egypt struggles with that outcome, but Nebukadnezar II (605-562 BC) restores order in his new province. Arwad maintain his connections with Egypt as can be seen by many Egyptian statues of this period. Tyre and Israel resist firmly, but the Jews are getting deported and Tyre has to endure 13 years of blockade. Most Phoenician cities keep their own kings (ANET p.307 and inscription Wadi Brisa), but has to accept a Shandubakku (supervisor), who controls everything in the towns. Nebukadnezar is a builder. He needs a lot of wood and many cedar-logs are transported to Babylon. Nebukadnezar needed also skilful craftsmen: 190 of them came from Tyre and only 3 from Arwad. It is a difficult period for Arwad, because the traditional trade-markets on Cyprus, Cilicia, Pamphylia and Caria are getting lost due to the colonization of the Greeks in those areas. Even on the mouth of the Orontes there is now a combined Greek/Phoenician settlement (Al Mina). Arwad changes his policy and draw his attention more and more to the west. This can be seen by grammatical details in inscriptions that appear in and around the line North Phoenicia – Cyprus – Sardinia – Etruria. The trade of Arwad concentrates on the northern flank of the great Phoenician exploration-route to the west. In doing this they made use of the colonies of Tyre and Sidon, who are developing to independent towns in this period.
See: “La politica estera di Nabucodonosor in Siria-Palestina”, E.Arcari, Roma, Rivista di Studi Fenici XVII, 1989.
From the second half of the 6th century there is an inscription of Amrit (Ma’abed). There is some discussion about the translation.
P.Bordreuil =
One gives to Ešmun -----
and his two brothers, sons of Gadnubu [son of]
Bodmelqart, to [their] lord, [to]…
because he has heard [their] voice…
E.Puech =
Those [who are] the ----
have made for Ešmunadon, the Arvadite
and his brothers, to [their] lord Rešep, because
he heard the voice of [their] prayer, bless them.
See: “Les inscriptions phéniciennes d’Amrit et les dieu guérisseurs du sanctuaire, E.Puech, SYRIA LXIII, 1986.


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