The Neo-Babylonian period of ARWAD.
From the beginning of the 6th century BC most Phoenician towns recognize the rule of Neo-Babylonia.
struggles with that outcome, but Nebukadnezar II (605-562 BC) restores order in
his new province. Arwad maintain his connections with Egypt as can be
seen by many Egyptian statues of this period. Egypt Tyre
and Israel resist firmly,
but the Jews are getting deported and
has to endure 13 years of blockade. Most Phoenician cities keep their own kings
(ANET p.307 and inscription Wadi Brisa), but has to accept a Shandubakku
(supervisor), who controls everything in the towns. Nebukadnezar is a builder.
He needs a lot of wood and many cedar-logs are transported to Tyre . Nebukadnezar needed also skilful
craftsmen: 190 of them came from Babylon
and only 3 from Arwad. It is a difficult period for Arwad, because the
traditional trade-markets on Tyre Cyprus,
Cilicia, Pamphylia and Caria are getting lost
due to the colonization of the Greeks in those areas. Even on the mouth of the Orontes there is now a combined Greek/Phoenician
settlement (Al Mina). Arwad changes his policy and draw his attention more and
more to the west. This can be seen by grammatical details in inscriptions that
appear in and around the line North Phoenicia – Cyprus
– Sardinia – .
The trade of Arwad concentrates on the northern flank of the great Phoenician
exploration-route to the west. In doing this they made use of the colonies of Etruria Tyre and ,
who are developing to independent towns in this period. Sidon
See: “La politica estera di Nabucodonosor in Siria-Palestina”, E.Arcari, Roma, Rivista di Studi Fenici XVII, 1989.
From the second half of the 6th century there is an inscription of Amrit (Ma’abed). There is some discussion about the translation.
One gives to Ešmun -----
and his two brothers, sons of Gadnubu [son of]
Bodmelqart, to [their] lord, [to]…
because he has heard [their] voice…
Those [who are] the ----
have made for Ešmunadon, the Arvadite
and his brothers, to [their] lord Rešep, because
he heard the voice of [their] prayer, bless them.
See: “Les inscriptions phéniciennes d’Amrit et les dieu guérisseurs du sanctuaire, E.Puech, SYRIA LXIII, 1986.