zondag 21 juni 2015

Drepana & Eryx 4



De oorlogen met Dionysios I van Syracuse.
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Dionysios I gebruikt de vredestijd om een grote strijdmacht op te bouwen en overvalt de Carthagers in hun epikratie in het jaar 397 v.C. Diverse Elymische steden blijven hem weerstand bieden, maar Eryx valt in zijn handen.  Diodoros: “He (Dionysios) had 80.000 foot soldiers, 3000 cavalry and 200 warships..... The inhabitants of Eryx were terrified and because the hated the Carthaginians (?), decided to join the Greeks.”
Bovendien weet Dionysios I de belangrijke stad Motya in te nemen, ondanks een ontzettingspoging door de inderhaast bijeen geroepen Carthaagse vloot. Het volgende jaar zijn de rollen omgedraaid. De Carthagers keren terug met een grote vloot en invasiemacht. Motya wordt bevrijd en de Carthagers beginnen met de bouw van een nieuwe haven: Lilybaion (=van hier gaat het naar Libyë).
Werner Huss (Die Karthager, blz 82-83):
“Eryx wurde ‘durch Verrat’, wie Diodoros sich ausdrückt, wiedergewonnen – vielleicht ein Zeichen dafür, dass die prokarthagische Partei in Eryx stärker war, als es den Griechen recht sein konnte.”
Het oorlogsgeweld verplaatst zich snel weer naar het oosten van Sicilië, want Himilco gaat met vloot en leger langs de noord- en oostkust richting Syracuse. Zijn poging om Syracuse te veroveren mislukt echter smadelijk en het komt nu tot een onvoordelige vrede voor de Carthagers, maar vooral voor hun bondgenoten. De epikratie blijft echter vrijwel ongeschonden in handen van Carthago. In de volgende oorlogen met Dionysios I in o.a 392 en 383 v.C komt de epikratie nauwelijks in beeld en kunnen Eryx en Drepana in redelijke rust verder leven. Lilybaion is nu de belangrijkste aanvoerhaven voor de Carthagers geworden en Drepana blijft de kleine haven op het tweede plan. Drepana betekent overigens in grieks: zeis. De havenmond van Drepana heeft wel iets van die vorm.
Eryx gaat door met het slaan van munten. Dit zijn tetradrachmen (Jenkins 1971) en ze hebben een militaire functie.
In 375 v.C komt het gevaar weer dichtbij, want het Carthaagse leger wordt bij Kabala verslagen en de weg naar de Epikratie ligt voor de Grieken open. Gelukkig weet Mago, de zoon van Himilco, tijd te rekken door middel van onderhandelingen en traint ondertussen de restanten van het verslagen leger. Daarna gaat hij de confrontatie weer aan en overwint zowaar aan de Kronion nabij Himera, waarbij 14.000 Grieken het leven erbij in schoten.
In het volgende vredesverdrag komt de grens tussen Grieks en Carthaags Sicilië te liggen langs de rivier de Halycus. Dit is de grootste vorm, die de Epikratie zal krijgen en dat zal bijna een eeuw zo duren.
In de laatste oorlog van Dionysios I tegen Carthago (368/367 v.C) komt de tiran opnieuw in de epikratie. Warmington vermeldt in zijn boek Carthage (blz 115): “A frontier incident was made the cause of the war, but our authority says that it was provoked by Dionysius, and the fact that it was fought in the Carthaginian sphere proves the point. Selinus and Eryx went over to his side and he undertook the siege of Lilybaeum, with little success. While it was in progress he was deceived by a false report of the destruction of a Carthaginian fleet coming to relieve the fortress, and divided his fleet, sending part of it back to Syracuse and beaching the remainder, 130 triremes, at Drepana, the harbour of Eryx. There they were taken by surprise by a fleet of 200 ships under a new Carthaginian commander, not of the Magonid family, called Hanno, who was later called ‘the Great’. Most of the Syracusan ships were taken, and it was no longer practicable to besiege Lilybaeum, Dionysius returned to Syracuse. A truce was arranged……”
Niet veel later sterft Dionysios I en breken er in Syracuse opvolgingsproblemen uit, hetgeen de Epikratie van Carthago weer enige rust geeft. Grieks Sicilië komt echter niet tot rust en dat zullen Eryx en Drepana in de toekomst nog aan den lijve gaan ondervinden.


Drepana & Eryx part 4.
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The wars with Dionysius of Syracuse.
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Dionysios I used the peace-time to build a great army and navy and raided the Carthaginians in their epikratie in the year 397 BC. Several Elymian cities remain to resist him, but Eryx falls into his hands. Diodorus: "He (Dionysios) had 80,000 footsoldiers, 3,000 cavalry and 200 warships ..... The inhabitants of Eryx were terrified and because they hated the Carthaginians, decided to join the Greeks (?)."
Moreover Dionysios succeeds in taking the important city Motya, despite a desperate attempt convened by the hastily assembled Carthaginian fleet. The following year the roles are reversed. The Carthaginians return with a large fleet and invasion force. Motya is freed and the Carthaginians begin to construction of a new port: Lilybaion (= it goes for Libya).
Werner Huss (Die Karthager, pp 82-83):
"Eryx was taken back by 'treachery', such as Diodorus expressed it - perhaps a sign that the party pro-karthaginian party in Eryx was stronger than it might be for the Greek taste”.
(translation from german).
The war is moving quickly to the east of Sicily, because Himilco goes with navy and army along the north- and east-coast to Syracuse. His attempt to conquer Syracuse, however, failed ignominiously and it comes to an unfavourable peace for the Carthaginians, but especially for their allies. However the Epikratie remains virtually intact in the hands of Carthage. In the following wars with Dionysios I in for instance 392 and 383 BC, the Epikratie is hardly in the picture and Eryx and Drepana continue living in a reasonable peace. Lilybaion has now become the main port for the Carthaginians and Drepana remains the small harbour on the second plan. Drepana incidentally means in Greek: scythe. The harbour mouth Drepana has something of that kind.
Eryx continues minting coins. These are tetradrachmas (Jenkins 1971) and they have a military function.
In 375 BC danger comes close again, for the Carthaginian army is defeated at Kabala and the road to the Epikratie is open to the Greeks. Fortunately Mago, son of Himilco, is buying some time through negotiations and meanwhile is training the remnants of the defeated army. Then he returned to the confrontation and actually he gains the victory at Kronion near Himera, leaving 14,000 dead Greeks behind.
In the following peace treaty, the border between Greek and Carthaginian Sicily lie along the river Halycus. This is the greatest form, which will be the Epikratie and that will last for nearly a century that way.
In the last war of Dionysios I against Carthage (368/367 BC), the tyrant is back in the Epikratie. Warmington mentions in his book Carthage (page 115): "A frontier incident had made the cause of the war, but our authority says it was provoked by Dionysius, and the fact that it was fought in the Carthaginian sphere proves the point. Selinus and Eryx went over to his side and he  undertook the siege of Lilybaeum, with little success. While it was in progress, he was deceived by a false report of the destruction of a Carthaginian fleet coming to relieve the fortress, and divided his fleet, sending part of it back to Syracuse and beaching the remainder, 130 triremes, at Drepana, the harbour or Eryx. There they were taken by surprise by a fleet of 200 ships under a new Carthaginian commander, not of the Magonid-family, called Hanno, who was later called 'the Great'. Most of the Syracusan ships were taken, and since it was no longer practicable to besiege Lilybaeum, Dionysius returned to Syracuse. A truce was arranged ...... "
Not much later Dionysios I dies and in Syracuse succession problems occur, which gives the Epikratie of Carthage again some rest. Greek Sicily, however, does not come to rest, and that will Eryx and Drepana in the future going to experience at firsthand.

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