maandag 9 februari 2015


Tamuda and environment.
================== Montalban shows on his map "Mapa de la zona del arqueologico protectorado de Espana and Maroc" (1933), that there are at least Phoenician and Carthaginian finds made in Tetuan, either Tamuda of antiquity. Twenty kilometers south of Ceuta (= Abyla) is the promontory Ras Tarf and 6 kilometers inland is the native town Tamuda on the riverside Martin. M.Tarradell (Marruecos Punico, Tetuan 1960 p.97-119) conducted excavations that demonstrate various settlements with a clear Punic impact. These are located at the confluence of the rivers Martin and Kitzan and on the old (!) estuary of the river Martin / Moutil (= Sidi Ebdselam either Sidi Abdeslam del Bahar). The latter settlement has according to Tarradell an occupation in three phases:
a. primitive period (6th-5th century BC)
b. sophisticated Punic ceramics (3rd century BC)
c. local and Italic ceramics (2nd century BC).
Another site is located near Tetuan, called Kitzan. See: E.Gozalbes, Kitzan Poblado Punico-mauritano en las inmediaciones de Tetuan (Marruecos) AntAfr.12 (1978) p.5-19. There was found a vase from the 8th-7th century BC, but this questionable.
However, the main town in the area is Tamuda itself. We know even the neo-Punic name: T m d ' t, whose origin is Libysch. The name appears on bronze coins from the 2nd century BC.
Pliny mentions the place in NH, V18 and refers to wetlands and a navigable river. Ptolemus talks about a river Tamuda and Pomponius Mela (T 29) does so with the name Tumuada. About the meaning of the name: this is guesswork. Ch.Tissot thinks it means swamp. Others refer -t to the exit, which would imply a relationship with the Canaries would. River Martin was found in antiquity indeed navigable and therefore there is a river port.
The oldest Punic remains of Tamuda dating from the 4th century BC. Thereafter, it becomes a Mauritania city with a clear Punic influence in the field of architecture, ceramics and cemeteries. An incense burner comes from the 5th-3rd century BC. There are also much Campanian ceramics and imitations thereof found.
However, quite recently, a comprehensive combined Spanish-Moroccan team began extensive excavations. In this joint Spanish-Moroccan project (2008-2012) are no less than 80 sites considered in the current Morroco and considering the Phoenicians and Punics in the Tetuan Valley they come to the following conclusions:
1. Caf Taht el Ghar (cave): Phoenician red ceramics (7 / 6th century BC).
2. Intensive occupation of the valley in the Punic period (6th-3rd century BC) with the places Tamuda Sidi Abdeslam del Behar, Caf Taht el Ghar, Quitzan / Koudiat el Medfac, Puente de Oued Malah. The place has in Quitzan a Punic residential area, where amphorae of the types of Ramon and Haltern T have been found.
3. Continuation during the Mauritanian period (2nd century BC - 40 AD) with the places Hayyouna, Atalya the Tamuda, Menkal and all prior mentioned places. We also find a Mauritanian wall. In 38 BC Tamuda was destroyed and again in 40 AD in the revolt of Aedemon.
4. Roman period of the 1st-5th century AD. There arises a large castle and possibly a centre of pottery. In the 2nd century AD, there is a major fire. In the 5th century AD the place is deserted.

See: En la Orilla africana del Circulo del Estrecho. Historiografia y proyectos acuales. Actes II del Seminario Hispano Marroqui the especialization and Arqueologia. Coleccion de monografias del Museo Arqueologico de Tetuan (II) with contributions from C.40 people!


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