dinsdag 17 februari 2015



Cesar Luis de Montalban was to my knowledge the first to place Valonae as Phoenician settlement on the map in his "Central Monumento Historicos y Artisticos". He also sees Carthaginian and Roman presence. He still uses the name Valonae. It is located between Punta Cires and Punta Ferdina. This was in the time of the Spanish protectorate over the Rif.
There are actually two different locations at a short distance from each other. To Sahara were found two basins of 2.85 meters by 1.50 meters. They have a semi-cylindrical shape as opposed to the later Roman rectangular shapes. If it is indeed from the 3rd century BC descended, then it must have been a Punic residence. The vast majority, however, dates back to the Roman period.
At the mouth of the Oued el Kazar is the town Alcazarsegher (Valonae). Now called the Ksar ash -Segir either the castle on the segir (Kazar). Ps.Skylax mentions only Λνή, as "a city on a river." There are clear traces of an ancient settlement where the Roman and Arabic relics predominate. Across the river we find the fish processing place with basins of 1.38 meters by 1.30 meters and there is also one with a length of 2.80 meters. The latter is in connection with a trough with a semi-circular basin. In addition, there are other reservoirs, one of which visible for the half and three others are hardly visible. Furthermore, at this place is found a grave with content. All this stems from the 3rd and 2nd century AD.
The place is probably and primarily been exploited by the Romans, but we still have more strings to our bow in this regard. More about that later.
Ceramics stems mainly from the 2nd and 3rd century AD, but the grave is in the 4th century AD mined. After that, the place is deserted.
In Phoenicia Itineraria of E.Lipinski (Leuven 2004) recalled that even Ptolemy in vague terms has a notice about "the mouth of the river" and that might relate the names Λνή and Oύαλωνος on the same place. He then establishes a connection with Lau west of Melilla, but this seems to be a very assumption. What do stitch can hold the further word / name explanation, but this is an assumption as well. The full Greek name might be Λουάλωνος with shortened form Λνή. It is the Phoenician name hidden from Luah-'ilon = stone table of god.
Lḥ = Luah (Heb) translates Krahmalkov (Dictionary, Leuven 2000) with "stone tablet on which the inscription is shown”. We combine this data with the text of ps.Skylax, in which he argues that Lue is located opposite the islands of Gades. This should be a big mistake in the (real?) texts of Skylax (c.500 BC), but since we only have one excerpt of a later date at our disposal, it is  understandable. The passage of Lue belongs between the provisions of Ceuta and Tangier. Lipinski (Itinerario) therefore gives the following order:
- Lue, a city on a river -> Alcazarsegher = stone table of god
- Krabis river -> Wad al-Ksar of Wad Moghogu or Wad Melaleh.
The name Krabis is very similar to Curubis and Carpis, both located at Cape Bon and they appear to be Semitic.
If prior thoughts will prove to be correct, then the Ksar es segir has thus more than just a Roman past. Until now, however, there are only Roman (and Arab) discoveries, but through the naming is still the suspicion arose that there is more to it. And so will the naming used by Montalban (Valonae) has a very special meaning. I assume that the Romans here in Sahara and Valonae were building on older Mauritanian, Phoenician or Punic constructions, for which the final proof as yet lacking.
                          PHOENICIAN - PUNIC DICTIONARY Charles R.Krahmalkov. OLA 90. Studia Phoenicia XV.
                          Uitgeverij Peeters en Departement Oosterse studies. Leuven 2000.
Mapa arqueologico de la zona del protectorado de  Espana en Marruec  C.L de Montalban   1933
Garum and industries antiques de salaison dans la Méditerrannée  occidentale  M.Ponsich + M.Tarradell Univ.de Bordeaux et Casa de Velàzquez Paris 1965

ITINERARIA PHOENICIA. Edward Lipinski. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta nr 127. Studia Phoenicia XVIII. Uitgeverij Peeters en Departement Oosterse Studies. Leuven – Paris – Dudley, MA 2004. 


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